The ritual act of unveiling and adoration of the Face establishes the royal paradigm of pious contem plation. This m anifestation of divine pow er is to be regarded as a kind of revelation, as a miracle to be proclaim ed, according to Assmann, so that the whole universe is told of the power of G od. Stroum sa Leiden: Brill, , p. Finally, through the restored akh-identity, he hopes to be like a living god and stand in the sun barque. He knows that the gods do not interfere in human affairs, and that a human being is exposed to all kinds of misfortunes that have nothing to do with the gods and have no religious significance whatsoever.
They just occur.
Uzdavinys, A. (2010) Orpheus and the Roots of Platonism
The only way to address the gods and to enter into forms of belonging and connectivity that bind him to the gods is to die and to present himself to the judgement of the dead. Proclus provides the following account, which presents an analogous but different story of royal succession and cyclic regression, based on the m yth of the Titanic act of violence. Here the dism em berm ent of Dionysus that partly follows the O sirian pattern represents the proceeding of the O ne into the Many. Proclus says:. A lb ert I. Baum gartcn w ith Jan Assm ann and G u y G.
Orpheus the theologian had handed down three races of man: first the golden, which he says Phanes governed; second the silver, which he says the mighty Kronos ruled; third the Titanic, which he says Zeus assembled from the Titanic limbs; thinking that in these three categories every form of human life was included In Remp. Yet another version is presented in the so-called Rhapsodic Theogony the Hieroi Logoi in 24 Rhapsodies.
In a related prayer to A pollo-H elios at the beginning of the O rphic Rhapsodies this poem is described as the tw elfth revelation of O rpheus. Phanes reigns before N ight in this account, and his reign understood both m etaphysically and as a pedagogical m yth of perfect politeia is som ewhat analogous to the reign of Ra.
In this respect, he is the death-conquering im m ortal H orus, the golden Falcon. The afterlife becam e the m irror of the self. The language of Plato describing the Forms is rem iniscent of the Parm enidean and O rphic revelations. Tauris, , p. A lan F. G erhard Haeny, ibid. John A. Volume 1: Text W iesbaden: H arrassowitz Verlag, , p. O nly the qualified Platonic philosophos is purified to such a degree that he achieves w hat others do not, namely, the realisation of his affinity sungenes with the divine.
Consequently, by becom ing real knowers—that is, by im itating m im eisthai the Forms and m aking themselves likenesses of them —philosophers becom e akin to the noetic Form s. However, if philosophy is nothing but a practice for dying and being dead Phaed. For according to Plato, the souls of pious philosopher-gnostics the knowers of Ideas, or Forms are purified of the m ortal body and thereby join the. M organ, Myth and Philosophyfrom the Presocratics to Plato, p. Hum an learning may be contrasted to the divine om niscience as discursive reasoning is to N eoplatonic intellection noesis.
V, no. Self-identity ebbs away in the flow of memory while consciousness disappears w ithout a trace of its previous contents. Kenneth M. Sayre, ibid. And the manner of conversation in question is one in which the master philosopher directs the steps of the relative neophyte. XX The Egyptian term sia is difficult to render.
Rekh implied a way of defining concepts that necessarily entailed the use of speech, and, later, writing; they endowed it with. However, one cannot be sure that the term rekh sim ply means som ething like discursive or scientific-encyclopaedic knowledge. Mer- rekhdesignates the aspiring student or scholar who desires to be initiated into the wisdom of Thoth.
His relationship with the deities is a close one; Thoth treats him virtually as a son.
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The dialogue betw een the The-one-of-H eseret Thoth and the mer-rekh is m odelled on an initiatory underw orld dialogue em ployed in the literature of the New K ingdom. The Platonic dialogues follow this pattern. Though the dem otic Book of Thoth itself is perhaps later than Plato, its patterns and ideas are based on the Ramesside theological rekh. In the context of priestly mystagogy, Im hotep the chief lector-priest of H eliopolis was regarded as an ideal sage or bearer of knowledge rekh-ikhet.
Consequently, Im hotep is the model for the initiatory death and transform ation which every mer-rekh hopes to accom plish. Volume i: Text, p. House of Life per ankh and dram atised in connection with divine festivals a connection also suggested by the dram atic setting of certain Platonic dialogues. Thereupon the mer-rekh praises Thoth for his advice, and expresses his own hopes for what amounts almost to a spiritual rebirth.
The mer-rekh offers a recitation of praise to Thoth or Imhotep at the festival of Imhotep. He expresses the wish to join his entourage, become a seer, and worship Se- shat. In accordance with the chief theological paradigm , he enters the barque of Ra, thus being like the transfigured akh, and not the m aterial corpse m ut.
Richard Jasnow and Karl-Thcodor Zau zich , ibid. The transliteration o f som e E gyptian words is slightly altered, for exam ple mr- rh becam e mer-rekh in order to make it more readable. Thereby the close relationship betw een prophecy and w riting is assum ed and em phasised. The Egyptian verb ser means to show, to announce, hence, to prophesy. The lord of the bau of Ra is the m essenger of prophecy, and the servant of Thoth is a receiver of prophecy brought by Thoth. O praised one of the heart of Ra, may he cause that you recite. He hopes to participate in rituals of the divine.
Richard Jasnow and Karl-T hcodor Z au zich , ibid. Accordingly, the mer-rekh strives for spiritual rebirth.
Orpheus and the Roots of Platonism by Algis Uždavinys
The knowledge imparted is strongly, but not solely, underworldly in character. We believe that the process takes place while the mer-rekh is alive, within the context of the temple House of Life, and probably in connection with festivals. H ist. Richard Jasnow and K arl-Thcodor Zau zich , ibid.
M argalit Finkelbcrg and G u y G. A ccording to Assmann: For nothing in the Egyptian cult is just what it appears to be. Everything in this sacred game becomes a kind of hieroglyph. The more there was to interpret, the more mysterious the rite became. Robert Lam bcrton, ibid.
Robert Lam bcrton, TheNeoplatonists and their Books, p. A fter the so-called H om eric age or even sim ultaneous w ith it , a radical shift had occurred in the ancient G reek m entality as regards the understanding of the soul and its relation to the body.
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Assmann writes: Much more comprehensively than in the Ramesside age, Egypt now discovered its own antiquity and elevated it to the rank of a normative past. This wholesale return to the models of the past was tantamount to a cultural revolution and it spread into every aspect of Egyptian life. It therefore cannot be assum ed that the people of Greece suddenly and rather spontaneously started to question the reliability of their traditional cosm ology and anthropology,.
R ather it serves for the form ation and m aintainence of social boundaries. As M artin explains: Like secrecy, such literary productions create their alternative world, and such textual societies. The revelation of its contents was a political act. Luther H. Hans G. Brill, , pp. Jan N. Stroum sa Leiden: E.
go This is so because the divine saviour is regarded as the patron of the client who is to be saved. These societies. Once more, the creative,. W illiam J. The initiate into the Eleusinian M ysteries, for exam ple, is therefore regarded as a kinsm an gennetes of the gods.
M artin, Secrecy in Hellenistic Religious Communities, pp. Ferwerda, for exam ple, doubts that the O rphics though surely craving for the liberation of the fettered soul viewed the hum an body as a prison. And because, on the other hand, it indicates semai- nei by that body whatever the soul indicates, it is also for that reason rightly called sign sema. However, it seems to me that Orpheus and his followers in the first place are the givers of that name soma because, in their opinion, the soul. The word soma stands for the corpse in Homer, and only later acquires the m eaning of body.
So it is when it is separated that it is really alive.
Armstrong, cd. Blum cnthal and R. M arkus London: Variorum P ublications, , pp. The mummy the com pleted and eternalised iaA-body inside the sarcophagus is an imago of O siris. Therefore, the entire tom b of O siris may be regarded as a sym bol of spiritual alchem y.